There are two methods of producing the shape for golf club heads: Casting or Forging.
Cast vs. Forged:
With casting, hot metal is "poured" into a mold. The grain structure is therefore, random and inconsistent.
For forgings, the alloy is rolled (pressed) to produce a linear "grain" structure which helps make it consistently thinner, stronger and lighter.
Glossary of Golf Head Materials:
Alloy or Matrix - Combinations of different metals. Often Aluminium.
Composite Alloy - Somewhat softer golf club head material, cheaper and a little bit heavier than stainless steel and titanium. And they are less forgiving.
Beryllium Copper - Copper colored alloy. Softer than steel.
Beta Titanium - Titanium alloy. Harder than steel.
Bi-Metal - Made of two materials.
Chrome Plated Finish - Shiny finish of iron heads and shafts.
Gunmetal Finish- Dark finish of iron heads.
Maraging Steel/Metal - Stainless Steel alloy harder than 17-4 stainless steel, often used in the faceplates of the head.
Melonite - Black plating. Resistant to corrosion.
Stainless Steel - Durable hard material. Commonly 431 Stainless Steel or 17-4 Stainless Steel. Stainless steel is cheaper than titanium, but somewhat heavier than titanium and titanium-alloys.
Super Steel - Alloys of steel that are stronger and lighter than 17-4 stainless.
Ti-Alloy - Often only a little titanium and the main part is made of aluminium. Therefore that kind of clubs are cheaper.
Titanium - Expensive, but very hard Lightweight material with excellent Strength. Creates a larger sweetspot and therefore the clubs are more forgiving on mishits.
6-4 Titanium - Woods with a very high percentage of titanium. Harder than 17-4 Stainless steel and 431 Stainless steel.
Forged Titanium - A manufacturing method for woods. The sole and body is forged from 100% pure titanium. The face usually is casted of 6-4 Titanium.
Tri-Metal - made out of of three metals.
Tungsten - Heavy metal inserts placed in lighter golf club head material to distributed the weight.
Zinc - Commonly used in Beginner Iron Sets
7075 Alloy - An Aluminum alloy with Traces of Chromium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese along with Silicon, Titanium, and Zinc.
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