What to expect:
When the clubs arrive, your budding Tiger Woods will want to hit a ball as soon as possible. Be prepared, and have a mat, ball and tee available outside immediately. Hopefully, this will prevent practice swings inside (and the hole in the ceiling that I had to fix).
Plastic practice balls work well, and won't break neighbor's (or your) windows. Follow the Boy Scout motto and, "Be Prepared!"
The next step:
We found it beneficial to set up a mini course around our backyard. Let them play it a few times with the plastic balls (3 holes or so). If you can get them, I would use the Cayman ball (soft with protruding dimples) next.
Finally, allow your child to pitch and putt with a "real" golf ball. Make sure that they understand how hard that Titleist is, and how long it flies.
The Driving Range:
To properly prepare your youngster for an actual round of golf, take them to the driving range several times. While there, instill in them the etiquette and rules of golf. At this point, your child should probably have a lesson. Have him/her practice on the putting green.
The big day:
I would suggest starting your child on a par 3 course. It will move quickly, they won't lose interest, and will acquire a taste and feel for the game. The can practice golf etiquette and learn the rules of golf.
After they have mastered this to a degree (pace of play, etiquette and rules), and have developed a bit of a swing, book a weekday afternoon round on the big course. You should start with 9 holes. Don't be a taskmaster, but encourage them to keep up with the required pace of play.
A couple rounds of 9, move up to 18. As long as they have the necessary background (probably not the swing, yet), they should be able to play on their own the next time.
Golf is a sport than can be played throughout their lives. Granted, it is not very physical, but playing 18 holes at a full-length course is the equivalent of walking 6 miles on average.
Your child will develop their self-esteem as their game improves.
Golf is oriented to business. Being a good golfer later in life will help foster business connections.
I hope you have found this guide helpful!