The frame is the core component of every bike. It plays a large role in the bike's performance, and it has a big influence on the total weight of the bike. Choosing the frame is the first step in bike building, and it needs to be done right. Road bikes are designed for travelling at speed on paved roads, so it is important to choose a quality frame that can produce a decent ride under the circumstances.
The quality of the frame is mainly dependent on the material used to build it. Steel, aluminium, carbon, and titanium are the four main materials used, and any buyer should become well acquainted with them. With the knowledge on their properties and the advantages they offer, finding the right frame for a road bike becomes a lot easier.
Steel is a very common choice for any metal work. It has been used traditionally for over a century in bike building and it still is a metal worth considering. Steel can be adapted to meet the need of cyclists, as it easy to bend and shape. Tubing made of this material is durable, and it can create a frame that is affordable and easy to repair. The downside of using steel is that it is heavier and prone to corrosion.
There can be many differences in the quality and price of a steel frame. Entry-level frames are usually made out of steel, and there are slight variations in what a buyer can get for the same price. The quality of the steel itself and the welding itself have a big influence. Choose a more basic frame if the bike equipment is more important. Saving money on the frame leaves more funds that can be directed towards equipment.
A higher-grade steel frame is created by adding alloys in the mix. Alloys enhance the properties of steel and improve the quality of tubing. The chrome molybdenum alloy marked as SAE 4130 steel is one of the more popular, used by bike manufacturers. There are other alloys as well, and all provide different responsiveness and comfort.
Although aluminium was first used in framing in 1895, it took nearly a century for it to become popular. With the invention of large diameter tubing and the improvements in the construction process, aluminium became a material that is more fitting than steel for frame construction. These days, a large percentage of the frames are made of aluminium and aluminium alloys.
The quality of an aluminium frame is dependent on the price a buyer is willing to pay. Basic aluminium frames cost a bit more than the steel ones, but they are lighter and resistant to corrosion. Alloys are also used to create the tubing for the frame. Aluminium is often combined with magnesium, silicon, and zinc. Commonly encountered alloys include the 7005 and the 6061. Both show very good weldability, which is important for frame construction.
Aluminium is a great material for a racing bicycle. There is no material that can produce a bike frame that weighs less than an aluminium frame. It is even lighter than titanium and carbon fibre. Aluminium can also be used to produce a light aerodynamic fork, which is a nice addition to the frame and provides a good ride on rough roads.
Carbon Fibre or Graphite
Carbon fibre is the only material used in frame building that is not a metal. It is actually a fabric that has glue that allows shaping and joining. Carbon fibre can be manipulated in many ways to create a nice frame for a ride. It is light, stiff, durable, and resistant to corrosion, all desired qualities in a frame.
Both the carbon fabric and the glues do not come cheap, so these frames cannot compete with steel or aluminium in terms of price. Graphite construction is a bit difficult, and that affects the price as well. Titanium is the only material more expensive than carbon in building bike frames.
The quality of the frame can also vary, depending on the fibres used. The terms 'high modules' and 'void free' are often used by manufacturers to label the frames of superior fibre quality. If there is no information on the types of fibres used, inquire further. The specifications for some models can easily be researched online, so be sure to check the manufacturer's website and bike forums for more information.
Sometimes, the carbon frames are combined with a carbon fork. A graphite fork offers excellent handling and is very shock absorbent. Carbon forks are very light and can weigh less than a pound. These forks perform very well but they are not suited for a rough ride.
A titanium frame is always considered a high-end frame. Titanium offers all the benefits and none of the weaknesses mentioned in the previous frame materials. It creates long-lasting frames, which are as light and corrosion resistant as aluminium frames. A titanium frame offers a comfortable ride and excellent handling, but it comes at a price.
Working with titanium is not easy, and that has certain limitations in terms of design. It takes a lot of effort to shape titanium, and welding is done with special equipment in a controlled environment. This also affects the production costs and volume, making titanium frames limited and more expensive.
Titanium alloys are labelled by the amount of vanadium and aluminium used in the product. The types of 3Al/2.5V and 6A/4V are commonly found in bicycle construction. Some frames might even use a combination of both. The 6A/4V is the lighter and stronger of the two, but it is harder to machine, which makes it more expensive.
It is evident that a frame can be built from many materials, and all of them are very different from one another. The information presented can be simplified if they are viewed in comparable categories. Weight, strength, corrosion resistance, and price are all important aspects for a prospective buyer. The chart below shows how each material measures up in these categories.
It is important to keep in mind that these are broad comparisons. Individual bike frames might prove to be better or worse, depending on the quality of the material and the manufacturing process. Though there is a clear favourite, it is a good idea to consider all materials for bike frames.
Price Impact and Use
Remember to include the price impact in material selection. Sometimes, even a well-painted steel frame can do the job, so there is no need to invest in a more expensive one. Speed requires a lighter frame, but consider the use of the bike. Do not pay extra for weight difference that only matters to racers if you are planning on using the bike recreationally.
Buying a Road Bike Frame on eBay
There are many bike frames to be found on eBay, and locating them is quite easy. A quick way is through the search bar. Just entering 'bicycle frame' as a query can reveal all offers available. You can manage the results by using filters such as price or by adding keywords to the search term. To view results on frames made from a specific material, buyers need to add it in the search query. Be sure to look for road bike frames in the eBay Deals section, where you can find promotional pricing on products.
A prospective buyer can separate the listings based on frame condition and create price ranges based on their needs. Setting the upper limits of the budget and deciding between new and used frames creates a more manageable subset.
Not many materials are involved in the production of bike frames, so being informed on the subject is fairly easy. Use the information provided on all four of the materials listed above to gain a perspective on what to expect from a road bike frame made from each material.
Though they vary in terms of strength, all of these materials can support a ride on a nice paved surface. Steel is considered an entry-level choice, and it does have its flaws. All other materials are lighter and less prone to corrosion, but none can match the price of steel. Titanium, aluminium, and carbon are more close competitors in terms of weight and performance. The only limiting factor in the selection is how much a buyer is willing to pay for the difference and whether it is even essential.