This is actually a very complex question to answer and at the outset I’ll mention my first degree is in Electrical Enginering so for me the answer sounds reasonable enough and I apologise to anyone for who this answer doesn’t sound reasonable :P.
Diamond are safely irradiated in four ways thse days:
--- Proton and Deuteron (‘Heavy Hydrogen’ – this is the reactive agent the hydrogen bomb incidentially) bombardment via cyclotrons (this is an electro magnetic atomic particle accelerator – there was one in the ‘Terminator 3’ movie when the female Terminator was stuck to the machine by the magnectic field)
--- Gamma ray bombardment via exposure to radioactive cobalt-60
--- Neutron bombardment via the piles of nuclear reactors
--- Electron bombardment via Van de Graaff generators.
These high-energy particles physically alter the diamond's crystal lattice, knocking carbon atoms out of place and producing color centers. Irradiated diamonds are all some shade of green, black, or blue after treatment, but most are heated to further modify their color into bright shades of yellow, orange, brown, or pink. The heating process increases the mobility of individual carbon atoms, allowing some of the lattice ‘defects’ deliberately created during irradiation to be corrected. The final color is dependent on the diamond's composition and the temperature and length of heating.
The treatement is completely permanent and will last for thousands of years and cannot be reversed
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