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Details about  AD300 Ancient Roman Britannia (England) Ring + Antique 19thC 1¾ct Norway Garnet

AD300 Ancient Roman Britannia (England) Ring + Antique 19thC 1¾ct Norway Garnet

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Item condition:
--not specified
Price:
US $169.99
Approximately AU $181.97(including postage)
 
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Postage:
US $2.99 (approx. AU $3.20) USPS First Class Mail Intl / First Class Package Intl Service | See details
 
Item location:
Lummi Island, Washington, United States
 
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30 day money back, buyer pays return postage See details
eBay item number:
121237345574
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Last updated on  14 Jul, 2014 08:45:30 AEST  View all revisions
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Very Elegant Size 4 1/2 Genuine Ancient Roman Bronze Gemstone Ring 300 A.D.

CLASSIFICATION: Ancient Roman Bronze Gemstone Ring. Antique Handcrafted Nineteenth Century Norwegian “Bohemian Ruby” (Rhodolite Garnet) Semi-Precious Gemstone.

ATTRIBUTION: Roman Provincial Britannia (present-day England), Third or Fourth Century A.D.

SIZE/MEASUREMENTS: Fits ring size 4 1/2 (U.S.).

Diameter: 18mm * 17 1/2mm (overall dimensions – including gemstone); 16 1/2mm * 14 1/2mm (inner diameter).

Bezel: 9mm (breadth) * 7 1/2mm (height).

Gemstone: 8mm (breadth) * 6mm (height) * 2 1/2mm (thickness). 1.68 carats (approximate weight).

Tapered Width Band: 3 1/2mm (at bezel) * 2mm (at sides) * 1 1/4mm (at back).

Weight: 0.60 grams (excluding gemstone).

CONDITION: Very good, intact, moderately heavy wear (underneath of bezel is actually worn through to gemstone), mild porosity (surface pitting caused by contact with earth while buried). Bands slightly “tweaked” by soil pressure. Professionally conserved.

DETAIL: A handsome, nicely constructed Roman bronze ring with understated but very elegant features. The ring sports a bezel which at one time held a gemstone, probably originally carnelian (orange colored quartz). However it is not possible to determine the type of gemstone the ring originally possessed as it was recovered without a gemstone. The ring possesses a large oval concave bezel which forms a “cup” for an oval gemstone. The ring is fairly light in construction, of one-piece construction much like a contemporary ring. The more archaic rings produced by Roman artisans were characteristically made in two pieces; an incomplete ring (a “shank”) with a separately crafted bezel which was brazed to the shank in order to assemble the ring. This ring has almost modern styling, the design literally “timeless”.

The Romans had a number of different adhesives they used, some of the most common being resin and bitumen. However one characteristic that they all had in common is that sooner or later, they tended to fail. Consequentially ancient “gemstone” rings are typically unearthed without the gemstone. True to form, this particular ring was not recovered with the gemstone intact, so we mounted a large, natural, antique, handcrafted, Norwegian “rhodolite garnet”. The history of garnet goes well back into the classical ages, where ancients believed that a garnet could give its wearer guidance in the night, allowing them to see when others could not. Rhodolite garnet was known to Victorian Europe as “Bohemian ruby”, so called because of the rich, raspberry red color which rhodolite garnet possesses (contrasted to the rather burnt orange undertones of ordinary garnet). In Africa this remarkable red semi-precious gemstone was known as a “Cape Ruby” during the Victorian era.

Though the rhodolite garnet originated in Norway, it was handcrafted and faceted by a nineteenth century Russian artisan near Yekaterinburg, Russia, home of one of Russia’s most famous gemstone and jewelry production centers, famous for producing the elaborate jewelry of Czarist Russia. Rather than use bitumen pitch or tree resin, we mounted the gemstone using jeweler’s epoxy. The gemstone is quite secure, but if you at time in the future wished to remove it, this could easily be accomplished using some thinner or nail polish remover. Though the gemstone is not as old as the ring, given the fact that many cultures of the classical Mediterranean world (including the Romans and Greeks) made use of garnet in their jewelry, and that the gemstone in itself is historically significant, it seemed an appropriate gemstone to enhance this ring’s beauty, a choice which preserves historical continuity.

If you look closely, you’ll see that the ring was worn so extensively during its previous “life time” in ancient Rome that the wearer’s finger actually wore through the back of the bezel, so now the gemstone shows from beneath. Inasmuch as the gemstone is solidly mounted, it helps to “bind” the ring together. However we would wish to point out that while the ring may be worn during normal home/office activities, it should be worn gently and with care. If you’re planning on working on a car, mowing the grass, playing tackle football, or running a jackhammer, it would be better to remove the ring first. However the ring can be safely worn during daily activities normal to a white-collar profession, and during home life excluding the performance of “household chores” such as gardening, housecleaning, etc.

Second, though the ring could be worn on occasion, if it were worn every day for several years, eventually the back side of the bezel would wear completely through. So either you’d have to arrange to repairs to strengthen the back side of the bezel (which we could do upon request, even before the ring was shipped to you), of the ring should only be considered for occasional use. Last, consider that judging by the extent of the wear evidenced, it seems quite likely that the ring was worn most of a lifetime. In fact the extent of the wear is significant enough that it suggests that the ring might have been worn during the lifetime of more than one owner. It seems possible that perhaps it was even a family heirloom handed down between generations.

Nonetheless fate has been kind, and the ring has been preserved in wonderful condition. Despite the heavy wear the ring nonetheless remains intact, though of somewhat imperiled integrity. However the fact it evidences some wear from use in the ancient world should not be a source for disappointment. You must keep in mind that the ring was produced by an artisan and sold to a patron or consumer with the idea that the ring would be enjoyed and worn by the purchaser. And without any regard to twenty-first century posterity, that precisely what happened! The original Roman owner of this ring wore it, enjoyed it, and probably never could have in his most delusional moment ever dreamed that almost 100 generations later the ring would still exist.

It should likewise come as no surprise that also detectable are the telltale signs that the ring spent thousands of years in the soil. Porosity is fine surface pitting (oxidation, corrosion) caused by extended burial in caustic soil. Many small ancient metal artifacts such as this are extensively disfigured and suffer substantial degradation as a consequence of the ordeal of being buried for millennia. It is not at all unusual to find metal artifacts decomposed to the point where they are not much more substantial than discolored patterns in the soil. Actually most smaller ancient artifacts such as this are so badly oxidized that oftentimes all that is left is a green (bronze) or red (iron) stain in the soil, or an artifact which crumbles in your hand.

However this specimen is not so heavily afflicted, and certainly has not been disfigured. To the casual inspection of the casual admirer, it simply looks like an ancient ring, nicely surfaced, no immediately discernible blemishes. You have to look closely to detect the telltale signs indicating the ring was buried for millennia. No denying, there is oxidation, you can clearly see the evidence in these photo enlargements, or if in hand you inspect the ring intently. However the extent is very mild. This ring spent almost 2,000 years buried, yet by good fortune there is only a very modest degree of porosity evidenced. It happened to come to rest in reasonably gentle soil conditions. Consequentially, the integrity of the artifact remains undiminished, and despite the wear, the rings remains quite handsome, and entirely wearable.

The ring’s size is a bit small for modern populations, but the ring was almost certainly worn by an ancient Roman adult woman. Take into account that primitive populations were generally of slighter build than today’s robust populations, and the Italians then and even today were typically smaller than say their German/Celtic contemporaries. Romans also oftentimes wore rings on all ten fingers (including their thumbs), so “pinkie” rings would have been much more common than they are today. And Romans wore rings on both the first and second joint of their fingers, the second joint obviously thinner (even on you and I) than the first joint where most people wear rings today.

So a size 4 1/2 ring would not have been an uncommon size for the typical Roman woman, it might even have been worn on the pinkie or ring finger of an adult Roman male, especially if it were worn on the second joint of a pinkie finger. The ring would fit many contemporary women on their “pinkie” finger; however the ring would also look absolutely marvelous mounted either on a gold chain or a leather cord. We have chains in a wide variety of metals, and handcrafted Greek black leather cords which would compliment this ring nicely if you desired to wear the ring as a pendant.

The ring has been professionally conserved. The ring is beautifully toned with a bright, almost golden brown color very characteristic of ancient bronze, but at the same time almost appearing as if it might be ancient gold (though it is unmistakably bronze). The Romans were of course very fond of ornate personal jewelry including bracelets worn both on the forearm and upper arm, brooches, pendants, hair pins, earrings intricate fibulae and belt buckles, and of course, rings. This is an exceptional piece of Roman jewelry, a very handsome artifact, and eminently wearable. Aside from being significant to the history of ancient jewelry, it is also an evocative relic of one of the world’s greatest civilizations and than ancient world’s most significant military machine; the glory and light which was known as the “Roman Empire”.

HISTORY: One of the greatest civilizations of recorded history was the ancient Roman Empire. In exchange for a very modest amount of contemporary currency, you can possess a small part of that great civilization in the form of a 2,000 year old piece of jewelry. The Roman civilization, in relative terms the greatest military power in the history of the world, was founded in the 8th century (B.C.). In the 4th Century (B.C.) the Romans were the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula, having defeated the Etruscans and Celts. In the 3rd Century (B.C.) the Romans conquered Sicily, and in the following century defeated Carthage, and controlled the Greece. Throughout the remainder of the 2nd Century (B.C.) the Roman Empire continued its gradual conquest of the Hellenistic (Greek Colonial) World by conquering Syria and Macedonia; and finally came to control Egypt in the 1st Century (B.C.).

The pinnacle of Roman power was achieved in the 1st Century (A.D.) as Rome conquered much of Britain and Western Europe. For a brief time, the era of “Pax Romana”, a time of peace and consolidation reigned. Civilian emperors were the rule, and the culture flourished with a great deal of liberty enjoyed by the average Roman Citizen. However within 200 years the Roman Empire was in a state of steady decay, attacked by Germans, Goths, and Persians. In the 4th Century (A.D.) the Roman Empire was split between East and West. The Great Emperor Constantine temporarily arrested the decay of the Empire, but within a hundred years after his death the Persians captured Mesopotamia, Vandals infiltrated Gaul and Spain, and the Goths even sacked Rome itself. Most historians date the end of the Western Roman Empire to 476 (A.D.) when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed. However the Eastern Roman Empire (The Byzantine Empire) survived until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.

At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the West, throughout most of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, and into Asia Minor. Valuables such as coins and jewelry were commonly buried for safekeeping, and inevitably these ancient citizens would succumb to one of the many perils of the ancient world. Oftentimes the survivors of these individuals did not know where the valuables had been buried, and today, two thousand years later caches of coins and rings are still commonly uncovered throughout Europe and Asia Minor. Roman Soldiers oftentimes came to possess large quantities of “booty” from their plunderous conquests, and routinely buried their treasure for safekeeping before they went into battle. If they met their end in battle, most often the whereabouts of their treasure was likewise, unknown.

Throughout history these treasures have been inadvertently discovered by farmers in their fields, uncovered by erosion, and the target of unsystematic searches by treasure seekers. With the introduction of metal detectors and other modern technologies to Eastern Europe in the past three or four decades, an amazing number of new finds are seeing the light of day two thousand years or more after they were originally hidden by their past owners. And with the liberalization of post-Soviet Eastern Europe, new markets have opened eager to share in these treasures of the Roman Empire.

RHODOLITE GARNET HISTORY: Victorian Europe was so enthusiastic about the raspberry red color of Rhodolite Garnet that they were called “Bohemian Rubies”. In Africa this remarkable red semi-precious gemstone was known as a “Cape Ruby” during the Victorian era. The name Garnet is derived from the Latin for pomegranate, "grantum", because crystals in rock reminded early aficionados of pomegranate seeds. However in ancient times garnet was also known as “carbuncle”. Mankind has used garnet as ornamentation for many thousands of years. Archaeologists recently found a garnet bead necklace worn by a young man in a grave that dates back to 3000 B.C. Garnet was used in earliest pre-dynastic Ancient Egypt. Excavations in Egypt have uncovered garnet jewelry dating back to 3100 B.C., garnet being used to construct necklaces for Pharaohs. In the ancient Roman world, it was not only popular with the Romans themselves (particularly for the carving of intaglios for signet rings), but also with the Germanic (“barbarian”) tribes in Northern Europe bordering the Roman Empire. Garnet was also prominently featured in the magnificent cloisonné inlay jewelry found in sixth and seventh century burials in England at the Anglo-Saxon site of Sutto Hoo, and was also popular with the other peoples of ancient Britannia, including the Celts, Franks, and Normans. According to historical accounts, the King of Saxony is said to have had a garnet of over 465 carats.

Due to its red color, ancient cultures associated garnet with blood, and thus garnet was thought to stop bleeding or bloodshed between enemies. Some primitive cultures believed that garnets could not only be used to stop bleeding, but would also cure inflammation. Ancients also believed that garnet was useful to resist melancholy and warn off evil spirits, especially spirits of the night, which were referred to as demons and night phantoms. The ancients also believed that a garnet could give its wearer guidance in the night, allowing them to see when others could not. Garnet was worn for protection when traveling, as garnet was believed to warn the wearer of approaching danger. The Persians considered garnet a royal stone, as did the Russians in Imperial times. Asian and North American Indian tribes used garnets as bullets, believing the stone would inflict fatal wounds. Ancient Christians regarded the blood-red garnet to be symbolic of Christ’s sacrifice. The Koran holds that the garnet illuminates the Fourth Heaven of Islam. The Greeks said it guarded children from drowning, and it was also thought to be a potent antidote against poisons. According to historical accounts, the Greek Philosopher Plato had his portrait engraved on a garnet by a Roman engraver. And according to Greek myth, garnet is symbolic of a quick return and separated love, since Hades had given a pomegranate to Persephone before she left him to ensure her speedy return. Therefore, Garnet was often given to a beloved one before embarking on a trip, as it was believed to heal the broken bonds of lovers.

In medieval times, garnet was thought to cure depression, protect against bad dreams, and relieve diseases of the liver, as well as hemorrhages. It was also believed that a garnet engraved with the figure of a lion was an all around effective charm that would protect and preserve health, cure the wearer of all disease, bring honors, and guard from all the possible perils of traveling. The wearing of a garnet talisman was also believed to protect against the plague (“Black Death”), lightening strikes, and was believed to change color so as to warn the wearer of impending danger. The Crusaders set Garnets into their body armor, believing the protective power of the stones would lead them to safety. From the 16th through 19th centuries, Bohemia, now a part of Czechoslovakia, was a tremendous source of garnet, and at one time, particularly in the Victorian Era, cutting, polishing, and mounting garnets was a very rich industry in that country. Many Bohemian castles and churches had magnificent interiors decorated with garnet. The different varieties of garnet are found in almost all colors except blue. Brown, red, green, yellow, black, and colorless stones are the most common. Darker gemstones are usually opaque, and light ones may be transparent or translucent. The best known members of the Garnet family are the deep red varieties, the Pyrope and Alamandite. The Pyrope derives its name from the Greek word meaning "firelike". It was the Pyrope Garnet that figured in the ancient Talmudic legend, which held that the only light in Noah's Ark was supplied by an enormous red garnet.

Through out history, gemstones were believed capable of curing illness and providing protection. Found in Egypt, dated 1500 B.C., the "Papyrus Ebers" offered one of most complete therapeutic manuscripts containing prescriptions using gemstones and minerals. In the eastern civilizations of China, India, and Tibet, gemstones were not only valued for their medicinal and protective properties, but also for educational and spiritual enhancement. Today these traditional cultures regard garnet as a stone of "good health", capable of balancing an individual's energy, stimulate desires, uplift attitude, and increase popularity. Medicinally garnet was long believed to cure heart palpitations, varicose veins, lung diseases, and various diseases of the blood. It was believed to stimulate metabolism, purify and reenergize the blood, heart and lungs, and was used to treat spinal disorders and arthritis. Garnets were also worn to enhance bodily strength, endurance and vigor. It was widely believed to be extremely beneficial to wear a garnet when one had to physically exert oneself. For men, it was believed to keep the reproductive system healthy. For women, it was believed to promote hormonal balance and was said to reduce swelling.

On the meta-physical plane, garnets were believed to bring good fortune, love, and success, and to improve self-esteem, thus even today they are often carried by businessmen as a talisman. The stone is said to sharpen one’s perception both of self and of other people. Garnet is believed to balance the sex drive, and is said to aid in sexual potency and fertility, to enhance sexual attraction, and to liberate one’s sensual side and so enhance passion and love. Adherents claim that garnet moves a couple deeper into a passionate and sensual exploration of sexual magic. The stone is said to inspire commitment, monogamous and stable marriage, and promises one’s love, devotion, and fidelity. It is also believed to aid in finding true lovers.

HISTORY OF BRONZE: Bronze is the name given to a wide range of alloys of copper, typically mixed in ancient times with zinc, tin, lead, or arsenic. The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were better than previously possible. Tools, weapons, armor, and building materials made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors from the “Chalcolithic” (the “Copper Age”), i.e., about 7000-3500 B.C., and the Neolithic (“New Stone Age”), i.e. about 12000 to 7000 B.C.). Of particular significance were bronze agricultural implements, tools for cutting stone, and weapons. Culturally significant was bronze statuary, particularly that of the Romans and Greeks. The ancient Greeks and Romans had a long history of making statuary in bronze. Literally thousands of images of gods and heroes, victorious athletes, statesmen, and philosophers filled temples and sanctuaries, and stood in the public areas of major cities. In fact, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Colossus of Rhodes are two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Initially bronze was made out of copper and arsenic. It was only later that tin was used, becoming (except in ancient Egypt) the sole type of bronze in the late 3rd millennium B.C. Tin-alloyed bronze was superior to arsenic-alloyed bronze in that the alloying process itself could more easily be controlled, the alloy was stronger and easier to cast, and unlike arsenic, tin is not toxic. Toxicity was a major factor in the production of arsenic bronze. Repeated exposure to arsenic fumes ultimately led to nerve damage in the limbs. Evidence of the long agony of Bronze Age metalsmiths came down to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the form of legend, as the Greek and Roman gods of metalsmiths, Greek Hephaestus and Roman Vulcan, were both lame. In practice historical bronze alloys are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was to hand. In one instance of ancient bronze from Britain, analysis showed the bronze to contain a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic, and silver.

Other advantages of bronze over iron include that bronze better resists corrosion, particularly seawater corrosion; bronze resists metal fatigue better than iron; and bronze is a better heat conductor (and thus is better suited for cooking vessels). However ancient bronze, unless conserved properly, is susceptible to “bronze disease”, wherein hydrochloric or hydrosulfuric acid is formed due to impurities (cuprous chloride or sulfur) found within the ancient bronze. Traditionally archaeology has maintained that the earliest bronze was produced by the Maikop, a proto-Indo-European, proto-Celtic culture of Caucasus prehistory around 3500 B.C. Recent evidence however suggests that the smelting of bronze might be as much as several thousand years older (bronze artifacts dating from about 4500 B.C. have been unearthed in Thailand).

Shortly after the emergence of bronze technology in the Caucasus region, bronze technology emerged in ancient Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization of Northern India, the Aegean, the Caspian Steppes (Ukraine), the Southern Russia/Central Mongolia Region (the Altai Mountains), the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean), Anatolia (Turkey) and the Iranian Plateau. By the late third millennium B.C. many Western European Bronze Age Cultures had emerged. Some of the more notable were the Celtic cultures of Middle Europe stretching from Hungary to Poland and Germany, including the Urnfield, Lusatian, and (Iron Age Transitional) Hallstatt Cultures. The Shang in ancient China also developed a significant Bronze Age culture, noted for large bronze burial urns. The ancient Chinese were the first to cast bronze (using the “lost wax” technique) about 2200 B.C. Prior to that time all bronze items were forged. Though weapons and utilitarian items were produced in great numbers, the production of bronze in ancient China was especially noteworthy for ornamented ritualistic/religious vessels (urns, wine vessels, water pots, food containers, and musical instruments), many of immense size.

Britain’s Bronze Age cultures included the Beaker, Wessex, Deverl, and Rimbury. Copper and tin ores are rarely found together, so the production of bronze has always involved trade. Cornwall was one of the most significant sources of tin not only for Britain, but exported throughout the Mediterranean. Other significant suppliers of tine were the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia (Turkey), as well as Spain. Enormous amounts of copper was produced from the Great Orme mine in North Wales, the island of Cyprus, the European Alps, and from the Sinai Peninsula and other nearby sites in the Levant. Though much of the raw minerals may have come from Britain, Spain, Anatolia, and the Sinai, it was the Aegean world which controlled the trade in bronze. The great seafaring Minoan Empire (about 2700 to 1450 B.C.) appears to have controlled, coordinated, and defended the trade.

Tin and charcoal were imported into Cyprus, where locally mined copper was mined and alloyed with the tin from Britain. Indicative of the seafaring trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, a shipwreck from about 1300 B.C. off the Turkish coast revealed a ship carrying a ton of copper ingots, several dozen small tin ingots, new bronze tools, scrap metal, and a blacksmith's forge and tools (along with luxury trade goods from Africa). It appears that the Bronze Age collapsed with the fall of Minoan Empire, to be replaced by a Dark Age and the eventual rise of the Iron Age Myceneans (on mainland Greece). Evidence suggests that the precipitating event might have been the eruption of Thera (Santorini) and the ensuing tsunami, which was only about 40 miles north of Crete, the capital of the Minoan empire.

Some archaeologists argue that it was Santorini itself which was the capitol city of the Minoan World. However where Crete or Santorini, it is known that the bread-basket of the Minoan trading empire, the area north of the Black Sea lost population, and thereafter many Minoan colony/client-states lost large populations to extreme famines or pestilence. Inasmuch as the Minoans were the principals of the tin/copper shipping network throughout the Mediterranean, the Bronze Age trade network is believed to have failed. The end of the Bronze Age and the rise of the Iron Age is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population disruptions in the 12th century B.C. The end of the Bronze Age saw the emergence of new technologies and civilizations which included the large-scale production of iron (and limited scale production of steel).

Although iron was in many respects much inferior to bronze (and steel was inefficiently produced in very limited quantities), iron had the advantage that it could be produced using local resources during the dark ages that followed the Minoan collapse, and was very inexpensive when compared to the cost of producing bronze. Bronze was still a superior metal, resisting both corrosion and metal fatigue better than iron. And bronze was still used during the Iron Age, but for many purposes the weaker iron was sufficiently strong to serve in its place. As an example, Roman officers were equipped with bronze swords while foot soldiers had to make do with iron blades.

Pliny the Elder, the famous first century Roman historian and naturalist, wrote about the reuse of scrap bronze and copper in Roman foundries, noting that the metals were recast as armor, weapons or articles for personal use, such as bronze mirrors. The melting and recasting foundries were located at the Italian port city of Brindisi. Located on the Adriatic coast, Brindisi was the terminus of the great Appian Way, the Roman road constructed to facilitate trade and military access throughout the Italian part of the Roman Empire. The city was the gateway for Roman penetration into the eastern parts of her empire (Greece, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea Region, the Danubian Provinces, and eventually Mesopotamia).

Domestic shipping (insured first class mail) is included in the price shown. Domestic shipping also includes USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site). Canadian shipments are an extra $1.99 for Insured Air Mail; International shipments are an extra $2.99 for Air Mail (and generally are NOT tracked; trackable shipments are EXTRA). ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per item so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers.

We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. If you intend to pay via PayPal, please be aware that PayPal Protection Policies REQUIRE insured, trackable shipments, which is INCLUDED in our price. International tracking is at additional cost. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs).

Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world – but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology.

I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the “business” of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly – even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE."


On May-11-13 at 01:18:21 PDT, seller added the following information:

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Item location: Lummi Island, Washington, United States
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We have a very simple, unconditional, unlimited, no-questions-asked return policy. If you are ever less than fully satisfied with your purchase, return it in its original condition for a complete refund of your purchase price (less our original shipping/insurance cost). Refunds for purchases made over 45 days prior are subject to reduction for eBay/PayPal fees charged.

Refunds by law: In Australia, consumers have a legal right to obtain a refund from a business for goods purchased if the goods are faulty, not fit for purpose or don't match description. More information at returns - opens in a new window or tab.

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International purchasers DO NOT PAY, PLEASE WAIT for our email outlining shipping options. Multiple purchases, DO NOT PAY, PLEASE WAIT for combined email invoice (we DO offer HUGE combined purchase discounts, usually about $5 per item). Our shipments DO INCLUDE insurance and tracking or delivery confirmation, as REQUIRED by PayPal. We accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with.

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