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- DescriptionToday on almost every desk in every office sits a computer. Eighty years ago, desktops were equipped with a nelectronic data processing machine: a card file. In Paper Machines, Markus Krajewski traces the evolution of this proto-computer of rearrangeable parts (file cards) that became ubiquitous in offices between the world wars. The story begins with Konrad Gessner, a sixteenth-century Swiss polymath who described a new method of processing data: to cut up a sheet of handwritten tes into slips of paper, with one fact or topic per slip, and arrange as desired. In the late eighteenth century, the card catalog became the librarian's answer to the threat of information overload. Then, at the turn of the twentieth century, business adopted the techlogy of the card catalog as a bookkeeping tool. Krajewski explores this conceptual development and casts the card file as a universal paper machine that accomplishes the basic operations of Turing's universal discrete machine: storing, processing, and transferring data. In telling his story, Krajewski takes the reader on a number of illuminating detours, telling us, for example, that the card catalog and the numbered street address emerged at the same time in the same city (Vienna), and that Harvard University's home-grown cataloging system grew out of a librarian's laziness; and that Melvil Dewey (originator of the Dewey Decimal System) helped bring about the techlogy transfer of card files to business.
- Author BiographyMarkus Krajewski is Associate Professor of Media History at the Bauhaus University, Weimar. He is a developer of the bibliographic software Synapsen: A Hypertextual Card Index (www.verzetteln.de/synapsen.
- Author(s)Markus Krajewski
- PublisherMIT Press Ltd
- Date of Publication23/09/2011
- SubjectLibrary & Information Science
- Series TitleHistory and Foundations of Information Science
- Place of PublicationCambridge, Mass.
- Country of PublicationUnited States
- ImprintMIT Press
- Content Note24 figures, 1 table
- Weight454 g
- Width152 mm
- Height229 mm
- Spine9 mm
- Translated byPeter Krapp
- Interest AgeFrom 18
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