The Gruen School of Watchmaking created the Gruen Horological Text in 1948 as a means of teaching students how to clean & repair wristwatches. It covers all aspects of watch repair, including advanced topics such as balance poising and hairspring manipulation. Readers new to watch repair will enjoy the hands-on, step by step style of the textbook. Also included are company memos anuncing new watch techlogies and changes to the procedures for working on watches. Additionally, this book includes the 8 Gruen Technical Bulletins. While this is Gruen text and the Curvex movement is used in examples, it is in way specific to Gruen watches. The techniques taught apply to all makes of wristwatches.