On 5 May 1725 a Dutch ship's officer, Leendert Hasenbosch, was set ashore on the desert island of Ascension in the South Atlantic Ocean, as a punishment for sodomy. He tried to survive on turtles and birds but found very little water on the barren island. He wrote a diary. He probably died after about half a year. In January 1726 British mariners found his tent, diary and other things and brought the diary to England. In 1726 a first English version of the diary of the Dutch castaway was published. Other versions followed in 1728, 1730 and 1976. Who was the castaway? The truth was disclosed by the Dutch historian Michiel Koolbergen (1953-2002), in a posthumously published book in Dutch. With the support of Michiel Koolbergen's family and publisher, this new book discloses the truth in English. This book is the second edition, with some improvements compared to the original edition of 2006. This book is illustrated with line drawings, both historic ones and by the Dutch artist Anneke de Vries.