Acoustic Signal Processing for Ocean Explortion has two major goals: (i) to present signal processing algorithms that take into account the models of acoustic propagation in the ocean and; (ii) to give a perspective of the broad set of techniques, problems, and applications arising in ocean exploration. The book discusses related issues and problems focused in model based acoustic signal processing methods. Besides addressing the problem of the propagation of acoustics in the ocean, it presents relevant acoustic signal processing methods like matched field processing, array processing, and localization and detection techniques. These more traditional contexts are herein enlarged to include imaging and mapping, and new signal representation models like time/frequency and wavelet transforms. Several applied aspects of these topics, such as the application of acoustics to fisheries, sea floor swath mapping by swath bathymetry and side scan sonar, automous underwater vehicles and communications in underwater are also considered.