The volume presents a selection of in-depth studies and state-of-the-art surveys of several challenging topics that are at the forefront of modern applied mathematics, mathematical modeling, and computational science. These three areas represent the foundation upon which the methodology of mathematical modeling and computational experiment is built as a ubiquitous tool in all areas of mathematical applications. This book covers both fundamental and applied research, ranging from studies of elliptic curves over finite fields with their applications to cryptography, to dynamic blocking problems, to random matrix theory with its invative applications. The book provides the reader with state-of-the-art achievements in the development and application of new theories at the interface of applied mathematics, modeling, and computational science. This book aims at fostering interdisciplinary collaborations required to meet the modern challenges of applied mathematics, modeling, and computational science. At the same time, the contributions combine rigorous mathematical and computational procedures and examples from applications ranging from engineering to life sciences, providing a rich ground for graduate student projects.