Dr.Mentan's study goes beyond the dichotomies of globalisation. He tes that certain dualities recur in the literature on this subject. In one widely influential distinction, there are two primary forces at work in the rise of globalisation: globalisation from above, a process that primarily affects the elites within and across national contexts, and globalisation from below, a popular process that primarily draws from the rank-and-file in civil society. This contrast highlights an important political dynamic (and it makes for a handy, hopeful picture of struggle and resistance on a world scale) but its widespread use obscures the ways in which these two trends are t entirely independent of one ather. For example, the groups from above and below tend to merge in certain ngovernmental organisations; and the popular movements from below may still be perceived in certain local contexts as an imposition from above.
Still other dualities prevail: of tensions between the global and the local; between ecomic and cultural dimensions of globalisation; between globalisation viewed as a trend toward homogenisation around Western (or, even more narrowly, around American) rms and culture, and globalisation viewed as an era of increased contact between diverse cultures, leading to an increase in hybridisation and velty; and between the material and rhetorical effects of globalisation or, as it might be put, between globalisation and globalisation. Finally, there is the distinction about whether globalisation is a good thing ; or t: Is globalisation beneficial to the cause of ecomic growth, equality, and justice, or is it harmful? Does it promote cultural sharing, tolerance, and a cosmopolitan spirit, or does it yield only the illusion of such understanding, a bland,consumerist appreciation,as in a Disney theme park, which elides issues of conflict, difference and asymmetries of power?
Dr Tatah Mentan is West African born and a US citizen with a Ph.D in Economics from the University of Wisconsin, USA. He is a full time university lecturer and author of among a number of works including The Recolonization of Africa (Bethesda,2011).