The author looks at Africa in the sixties and at the major events which have shaped the destiny of the continent for decades since the end of colonial rule. Most of the countries had won independence by 1968. It was the euphoric and turbulent sixties when African countries were confronted with the harsh realities of nationhood including nation building and state consolidation. They were also years of military coups and assassinations as well as conflicts: the ouster of Kwame Nkrumah who led Ghana to become the first black African country to win independence; the Congo crisis including the secession of Katanga province and the assassination of Patrice Lumumba; the Nigerian civil war triggered by the secession of the Eastern Region which declared independence as the Republic of Biafra; the Zanzibar Revolution followed by the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar which led to the creation of a new country, Tanzania, which is the only union of independent states ever formed on the continent; and liberation wars in the countries of southern Africa which were under white mirity rule. There were many other events which took place across the continent during those years. Almost all the major events which have taken place on the continent through the decades can be traced back to the sixties in one way or ather. That was when the foundations of the young African nations were laid. It was also during those years when African governments adopted and implemented policies, including imported -isms which had a profound impact on the continent for decades. It was probably the most important decade in the history of post-colonial Africa.