Excerpt from Archaeology, Education, Medical,& Charitable Institutions of Glasgow From the middle of the tenth century, when Cumbria was ceded to the first Malcolm, till the consolidation of feudal Scotland under King David, in 1124, the territory which comprehended Strathclyde was more than a dependency of the Scottish kingdom, and there had been periods when even that relationship was t maintained. One table break occurred during the reign of Macbeth (1040-57), who does t appear to have ruled south of the Forth; and, between the death of Malcolm III. and the accession of Edgar, it seemed as if the Forth was again to be the southern boundary. Throughout Edgar's comparatively peaceful reign of nine ears some difficulties were experienced in ruling the combined territory, on account of diversity of race and complications of a political nature, and historians are of opinion that it was for this reason that, on Edgar's death, Scotland proper was assigned to Alexander, with the title of king, while David, the younger brother, ruled the southern districts as earl. This latter territory - Cumbria, Teviotdale, and part of Lothian - the scene of many old rivalries between aboriginal Britons, Saxon, and Norse invaders, and nearer neighbours, the Picts and Scots, comprehended the area w included in the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, Dumfries, Peebles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh, with adjoining districts t precisely defined. Many places throughout these bounds soon rose into prominence when placed under the able administration of Earl David, who had exceptional advantages for ruling the Border country. On account of his sister being the wife of King Henry, and his own marriage bringing with it substantial interests in England, he was in his younger days in close relationship with the English court. This intimacy with the southern country accelerated the Anglo-Saxon and Norman immigration, which had been going on since the arrival of Queen Margaret, and it was t long till most of the land, other than the portions retained as royal domain or gifted to the church, was in the possession of the new settlers as overlords. It is thought, however, that the native population would continue to occupy their previous holdings as cultivators of the soil, and, if this view be correct, the introduction of the new feudal overlords probably caused little or disturbance. The protection which a powerful chief could extend to his vassals and tenants would counterbalance other disadvantages and reconcile the old possessors to the change. To this period is likewise ascribed the origin of royal burghs, with their communities enjoying the exclusive privilege of trade and the right of self-government. Possessing some features of the municipal organisation which characterised the cities of the Roman empire, these burghs were mainly formed on the model of those which, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, had come into existence on the continent of Europe, and had been introduced into England after the Norman Conquest. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art techlogy to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.