Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are computer based systems that are designed to simulate the learning process of neurons in the human brain. ANNs have been attracting great interest during the last decade as predictive models and pattern recognition. Artificial neural networks possess the ability to learn from a set of experimental data without actual kwledge of the physical and chemical laws that govern the system. Therefore, ANNs application in data treatment is high, especially where systems present n-linearities and complex behaviour. This book describes the application of artificial neural networks for modelling of water and wastewater treatment processes.