This work, the fifth edition of what has come to be seen as a leader in its field, has been especially updated to further explore the impressive strides that have been made in the pathophysiology of heart failure at all levels. These include molecular changes and the integrated circulatory system. This edition provides an up-to-date overview of what constitutes rmal cardiac function. It also contains an exhaustive guide to approaches that can be used to manage the system. Authors of the chapters provide detailed charts and graphs depicting new modalities available for treatment, management options, and syndrome etiology.