The papers contained in this book were presented at a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held at Cape Sounion, Athens, Greece, 19-24 May, 1991. The twenty-eight more comprehensive papers represent the key subjects of the ARW covered by invited speakers. The thirty-four short papers pre- sented in a research format are contributions of those invited to participate in the ARW. There was a total of 70 participants from 21 countries. The objectives of the ARW were as follows: to review current kwledge of biological control of plant diseases and plant parasitic nematodes, with emphasis on mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, organismal, and ecosystem level; to examine and expand on current concepts and synthesize new concepts; to identify and prioritize limitations in the use of biological control for plant diseases and nematodes and the scientific research needed to overcome these limitations; and to develop strategies for biological control through management of resident agents or introduction of natural or modified agents.