The establishment of precise and reliable biomarker tests for the early stages of cardiovascular disease is of great importance and can be the cornerstone in the prevention of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, some biomarkers may provide important information concerning the pathogenesis of CVD or appear to be useful in risk stratification, in CVD diagsis, or in monitoring therapy; many others may be risk factors themselves, representing therefore potential targets of therapy. The ideal biomarker should have the following characteristics: highly sensitive, specific, reliable, accessible, standardized, dependable, cost effective, and easily interpretable by clinicians. The present book focuses on the presentation and evaluation of the most promising classical and vel biochemical markers used in CVD (coronary artery disease, hypertension, heart failure, hyperlipidemia, peripheral arterial disease). The underlying pathophysiological characteristics of each biomarker, as well as potential clinical implications in daily practice are reviewed in this book.