The past decade has been marked by the acceleration of our understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Simultaneously, there have been increasing exigencies to diagse, treat and follow cancer patients more ecomically. Biomarkers represent the marriage of science and ecomics. Biomarkers offer the potential to increase the precision of diagsis, progsis, and surveillance of urological malignancies. This issue presents the cutting-edge advances of biomarker techlogy to urologic oncology.