What were the constitutive acts in the making of a bishop and what was their significance? In answering these questions, Professor Benson provides a new perspective on a crucial chapter in the history of ecclesiastical office. Drawing upon material from unedited canistic manuscripts, as well as from Gratian's Decretum and the Decretales of Gregory IX, he traces aspects of the Church's constitutional doctrine and administrative practice from the early Middle Ages, which stressed the sacramental character of office, to the end of the thirteenth century, when ecclesiastical office was conceived primarily in terms of jurisdictional prerogatives. Originally published in 1968. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand techlogy to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.