Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the possible role of brain acetylcholine in neuropsychiatric disease. Research in this area has involved the renewed investigation of the cholimimetics physostigmine and arecoline, and has been facilitated by the development of new potential cholimimetics such as dimethylamiethal (Deal) and choline chloride. Current investigators also have taken advantage of new approaches to neurochemical studies. Increasingly sensitive assay techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry have allowed investigators to measure low concentra- tions of choline and acetylcholine in brain tissues. Improved neuroanatomical procedures such as immuhistochemical staining and the use of microelectrodes and micropipets have enabled skilled investigators to begin to map central acetylcholine pathways and to dissect the component parts of the complex interactions between brain acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters. The convergence of data from both clinical and basic studies w suggest that brain acetylcholine may be involved in affective illness, several movement disorders, and some cognitive disturbances. The purpose of this book is to summarize recent clinical and pre-clinical investigations on the possible role of brain acetylcholine in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The volume is divided into six major sections: (1) Brain Acetylcholine and Psychiatric Disorders; (2) Brain Acetylcholine and Movement Disorders; (3) Brain Acetylcholine and Cognitive Function; (4) The Electrophysiology of Cholinergic Agents; (5) Interactions of Brain Acetylcholine and Other Neurotransmitters; (6) Biochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of CholinergiC Treatment Strategies.