The book has been written in a very simple and easily understandable language. The information given in this book is based on systematically and scientifically designed field and laboratory experiments conducted in various ecological zones. It is believed that this book will serve the scientific society in a variety of ways. Undergraduate and postgraduate students, professors, teachers, scientists and researchers having their interests in different fields of specialization will certainly be benefited. The book covers articles written by well kwn authorities in respective fields.