In this book, the authors describe an important class of calcium binding lysozymes that are evolutionarily related to the lysozyme superfamily and the lactalbumins. The authors take the reader through a journey from the evolution, then the structure and properties of the calcium binding lysozymes. They discuss new unique protein folding pathways with local co-operative, close related folding modes that exhibit multiple folding pathways which are t properties of the lactalbumins or n calcium binding lysozymes. They comprise one of the most diverse group of examples in protein folding. In addition this protein class, especially equine lysozyme, shows peculiar amyloid assembly properties that are t common with other fibril forming proteins. It is one of the first shown to form ring shaped amyloids and other complexes in vitro. Lastly equine lysozyme forms complex with oleic acid, a unique form ELOA, which contributes to the family of the human and bovine lactalbumin analogues HAMLET and BAMLET.