The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has a critical responsibility to advance the connectivity of electronic health information and interoperability of health information techlogy (health IT). This is consistent with its mission to protect the health of all Americans and provide essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves. This work has become particularly urgent with the need to address the national priority of better and more affordable health care, leading to better population health. Achieving this goal will only be possible with a strong, flexible health IT ecosystem that can appropriately support transparency and decision-making, reduce redundancy, inform payment reform, and help to transform care into a model that enhances access and truly addresses health beyond the confines of the health care system. Such an infrastructure will support more efficient and effective systems, scientific advancement, and lead to a continuously improving health system that empowers individuals, customizes treatment, and accelerates cure of disease. This book's purpose is to better inform decision making to improve individual health, community health, and population health. It also describes the policy and technical actions needed to realize the vision of a seamless data system.