This book is the fifth in a series on research and theory dedicated to advancing our understanding of schools through empirical study and theoretical analysis. Scholars, both young and established, are invited to publish original analyses, but we especially encourage young scholars to contribute to this series. The current volume is similar to its predecessors in that it provides a mix of beginning and established scholars and a broad range of theoretical perspectives; in all 14 authors contributed to 9 separate but related analyses, which were selected for publication this year. These chapters underscore the significance of educational policy in contemporary public education and in particular the impact of accountability policy on school outcomes. Public schools are increasingly being held accountable for students achieving at higher levels in both basic skills and higher-level learning outcomes. Of course, all policy is enacted by teachers in classroom and sometimes changed or distorted in the process. The challenge is to improve student outcomes without permitting accountability testing to extinguish invation and creativity in schools. This book series on Theory and Research in Educational Administration is about understanding schools. We welcome articles and analyses that explain school organizations and administration. We are interested in the why questions about schools. To that end, case analyses, surveys, large data base analyses, experimental studies, and theoretical analyses are all welcome. We provide the space for authors to do comprehensive analyses where that is appropriate and useful. We believe that the Theory and Research in Educational Administration Series has the potential to make an important contribution to our field, but we will be successful only if our colleagues continue to join us in this mission.