What would have happened had the road t taken been the chosen action in past conflict interventions? What can we learn from a close look at alternatives that were t selected? Drawing on six detailed case studies (the Balkans, Haiti, Leban, Liberia, Somalia, and Zaire/Congo), I. William Zartman identifies a series of missed opportunities - options that arguably would have provided feasible and better outcomes for the reduction of violent conflict and the prevention of state collapse. Zartman specifies potential solutions within the entire trajectory of each conflict, considering in each instance why the indicated decisions were t taken. The principles and mechanisms that he develops in the course of his analysis have profound implications for the actions of the international community in preventing conflicts from escalating to violence, and for managing violent situations when they do occur.
I. William Zartman is Jacob Blaustein Professor of International Organization and Conflict Resolution at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. His many publications in the field of conflict negotiation and management include Ripe for Resolution, Preventive Negotiation: Avoiding Conflict Escalation, Negotiating an End to Civil War, and The 50 Per Cent Solution. He is recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Association for Conflict Management.