The study of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family has become an exciting area of investigation. Initially, this family consisted of ligands (insulin, IGF-I and IGF-m and receptors (the insulin receptor, the type I or IGF-I receptor and the type II or IGF-IYM-6-P receptor). Subsequently, it was discovered that six specific binding proteips (lGFBPs 1-6) playa major role in the actions of this growth factor family. In addition, there are w more potential receptors when one considers the possible roles of the insulin-receptor related receptor (IRR) and hybrid receptor dimers composed of insulin and IGF-I receptor (half-receptors). Ather important aspect of this area of research is the realization that the IGFs are t only essential for rmal growth and development but, in addition play an important role in the rmal specialized function(s) of all tissues of the body, including the nervous system, skeleton, reproductive system, kidney, and the immune system, to name but a few. The development of recombi!tant human IGF-I for clinical testing has been a major breakthrough for investigators. Potential uses include wound healing, reversal of catabolic states, diabetes, bone remodeling, recovery from acute renal failure and many others. will determine both its use and its potential hazards.