This book examines the conceptual issues for Congress and U.S. law enforcement as it relates to cybercrime. Twenty-first century criminals increasingly rely on the Internet and advanced techlogies to further their criminal operations. These criminals can easily leverage the Internet to carry out traditional crimes such as distributing illicit drugs and sex trafficking. In addition, they exploit the digital world to facilitate crimes that are often techlogy driven, including identify theft, payment card fraud, and intellectual property theft. Cybercrimes have ecomic, public health, and national security implications. For over three decades, Congress has been concerned about cybercrime and its related threats. Today, these concerns often arise among a larger discussion surrounding the federal government's role in ensuring U.S. cyber security.