Effluents from Alternative Demilitarization Technologies: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Prague, Czech Republic, October 13-15, 1997 by Kluwer Academic Publishers (Paperback, 1998)
FRANCIS W. HOLM 30 Agua Sarca Road, Placitas, New Mexico 1. Overview The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sponsored an Advanced Research in Prague, Czech Republic, on October 13-15, 1997, to collect and Workshop (ARW) study information on effluents from alternative demilitarization techlogies and to report on these fmdings. The effluents, orprocess residues, identified for assessment at the workshop are generated by systems that have been proposed as alternatives to incineration techlogy for destruction of munitions, chemical warfare agent, and associated materials and debris. The alternative techlogies analyzed are grouped into three categories based on process bulk operating temperature: low (0-200 C), medium (200-600 C), and high (600-3,500 C). Reaction types considered include hydrolysis, biodegradation, electrochemical oxidation, gas-phase high-temperature reduction, steam reforming, gasification, sulfur reactions, solvated electron chemistry, sodium reactions, supercritical water oxidation, wet air oxidation, and plasma torch techlogy. These ofprocesses, some of which have been studied categories represent a broad spectrum only in the laboratory and some of which are in commercial use for destruction of hazardous and toxic wastes. Some techlogies have been developed and used for specific commercial applications; however, in all cases, research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) is necessary to assure that each techlogy application is effective for destroying chemical warfare materiel. Table 1 contains a list of more than 40 techlogies from a recent report for the U.S. Army . Many ofthe techlogies in Table 1 are based on similar principles.