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An exploration of electric refractory materials, this book covers developments of blue light-emitting diodes using GaN-based nitrides for laser and high-temperature and -frequency devices. Electric Refractory Materials introduces growth and evaluation standards of films and bulk crystals, with consideration of band structure, surface electronic structure, and lattice vibrations. It also covers heat capacity and thermal conductivity, irradiation properties, and selective surfaces. Focusing on diamond material, the book examines its synthesis and characterization as well as its electrical, optical, and conductive properties. The book also discusses the use of silicon carbide, boron compounds, and other material used in electronic and light-emitting devices.