This is a collection of Ruth Macklin's previously published articles that appeared in scholarly journals or as chapters in books. Dr. Macklin's pioneering work in ethics and global health spans more than two decades. The articles in this volume range from a chapter in a book published in 1989 to a journal article currently in press. The essays fall into two broad categories: policy and practice, and multinational research. Topics in the first category include cultural beliefs and attitudes regarding family planning, long-acting contraception, abortion, and more broadly, policies and practices affecting women's health. Two essays dealing with justice focus on HIV/AIDS: how developing country governments might distribute medications fairly to all who are in need; and what obligations do industrialized countries and world leaders have to provide affordable medications to developing countries. A theme that runs throughout the essays is a defense of the universality of ethical principles, despite cultural differences that exist around the globe. The section on multinational research includes articles on international ethics guidance documents, such as the Declaration of Helsinki; discussion of the obligations of researchers and sponsors when they conduct research in developing countries; what constitutes exploitation when research is conducted in resource-poor countries; and, as in the first section of the book, the application of universal ethical principles to the global research enterprise. The author criticizes the view that double standards in research are acceptable: one standard for rich countries, and a lower standard for developing countries. Several essays deal with sensitive and controversial ethical aspects of research on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS.
Ruth Macklin is Professor of Bioethics in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, New York, USA. She is author or editor of eleven books and more than 200 publications in journals and books in bioethics, philosophy, medicine, and public health.