This book addresses the formulation, approximation and numerical solution of optimal shape design problems: from the continuous model through its discretization and approximation results, to sensitivity analysis and numerical realization. Shape optimization of structures is addressed in the first part, using variational inequalities of elliptic type. New results, such as contact shape optimization for bodies made of n-linear material, sensitivity analysis based on isoparametric technique, and analysis of cost functionals related to contact stress distribution are included. The second part presents new concepts of shape optimization based on a fictitious domain approach. Finally, the application of the shape optimization methodology in the material design is discussed. This second edition is a fully revised and up-dated version of Finite Element Method for Optimal Shape Design. Numerous numerical examples illustrate the theoretical results, and industrial applications are given.