Food security is taken for granted in the industrialised world, where stable political and social structures ensure that everyone has access to safe and nutritious food sufficient to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle. The picture in the developing world is very different. This important topic is the focus of our book. One of the persistent myths concerning food insecurity is that it is caused by a shortfall in food production. Quite to the contrary, there is plenty of food to go around. The reasons for food insecurity are complex, but one of the main factors is poverty. Biotechlogy provides a range of tools that can be used to improve agriculture in the developing world. This book considers some of the biotechlogy-based approaches to improving agriculture and food security in the developing world. Despite the wealth present in American society, high rates of food insecurity, food insufficiency, and hunger are a significant problem in the United States. Some adults have obsessive concerns about their food supply. A study in this book suggests that this may, in part, be a symptom of materialistic tendencies developed in childhood in response to an insufficient food supply. A further study presents the effect of reports of food hardships on the presence of chronic health conditions. This book continues with specific research in seafood and meat regarding the abundance of these products, food security concerns as well as health related issues.