Pulling together the most up-to-date research on the effects of restrictive language policies, this timely volume focuses on what we kw about the actual outcomes for students and teachers in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts - states where these policies have been adopted. Prominent legal experts in bilingual education analyze these policies and specifically consider whether the new data undermine their legal viability. Other prominent contributors examine alternative policies and how these have fared. Finally, Patricia Gandara, Daniel Losen, and Gary Orfield suggest how better policies, that rely on empirical research, might be constructed. This timely volume features contributions from well-kwn educators and scholars in bilingual education. It includes an overview of English learners in the United States and a brief history of the policies that have guided their instruction. It also analyzes the current research on teaching English learners in order to determine the most effective instructional strategies.