Pseudodifferential methods are central to the study of partial differential equations, because they permit an algebraization. The main purpose of this book is to set up an operational calculus for operators defined from differential and pseudodifferential boundary values problems via a resolvent construction. A secondary purposed is to give a complete treatment of the properties of the calculus of pseudodifferential boundary problems with transmission, both the first version by Boutet de Monvel (brought completely up to date in this edition) and in version containing a parameter running in an unbounded set. And finally, the book presents some applications to evolution problems, index theory, fractional powers, spectral theory and singular perturbation theory. Thus the book's improved proofs and modern points of view will be useful to research mathematicians and to graduate students studying partial differential equations and pseudodifferential operators.