Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2011 in the subject Medicine - Epidemiology, language: English, abstract: This paper explores briefly the Global Burden of Disease, which is a comprehensive study conducted by WHO and Harvard School of Public Health to evaluate the global impact of mortality and disability from various disease conditions, injuries and risk factors. The paper presents two of the epidemiological scenarios, namely Steady Progress and Progress Stymied that have been observed by the scientific community while investigating the epidemiology of communicable versus n-communicable diseases. It underlines the differences in opinions raised by international health researchers concerning the global outlook for infectious versus chronic diseases. The paper also lists the factors that are likely to affect whether infectious or n-infectious diseases will pose a greater threat in the future. It further compares and contrasts two population pyramids; one of Germany and one of the Philippines, and discusses their major epidemiological trends, including pyramid shape, birth and death rates, negative environmental factors, and access to health care facilities. Lastly, the expected changes in causes of death if the current global life expectancy (65 years) increased to 76 years within the next 10 years, and the conclusions drawn are presented in the last sections.
Dr. Widad Akrawi is a geneticist and global health expert, and one of Scandinavia's most successful female human rights and peace activists. Born in Kurdistan region, she graduated as a civil engineer in 1990, and proceeded on to the Technical University of Denmark where she earned a Masters degree in genetics and microbiology. After graduation, she served as a clinical geneticist and researcher in human genetics and inherited diseases at the Danish Royal Hospital, the largest hospital in Denmark and a leading university hospital in Northern Europe. She has also earned a PhD degree in global health and (cancer) epidemiology, with her dissertation focusing on analysing the 1999-2010 NHANES datasets on lung cancer development and vitamin E intake and the potential modification effects of dietary fat and fatty acids intake. Dr. Akrawi became a published author in 2003 and has since published several medical textbooks and academic articles. After researching the concept of victim psychology and the effects of various types of trauma on individuals' psychological health, her first novel entitled Tara's Book, written in Danish, was published in Copenhagen. The book was translated to Norwegian in 2005, published in Oslo, and recognised by the Norwegian Cultural Council. Her eBook, entitled Under Habets Skygge (Under the Shadow of Hope), also in Danish, was published in 2013 at Amazon.com and Lulu.com. Her medical books and scholarly research papers can be found on Amazon and elsewhere. All revenues generated from the sales of her publications are completely donated to charity. Dr. Akrawi currently leads Defend International, a Norway-based NGO that is devoted to medical research and human rights. Over the years, she has addressed and attended numerous regional and international meetings and conferences, such as the United Nations Third and Fourth Biennial Meeting of States, the UN Commission on The Status of Women, the General Assembly Interactive Hearings with Non-Governmental organisations, Civil society organisations and the Private sector, and the UN First Committee on Disarmament and International Security. She has held many leadership positions in national and international organisations, including Executive Board member of Amnesty International Denmark, ambassador for Amnesty International's Stop Torture campaign, and member of the Panel of Vestby Experts on approaches to socio-cultural constructivism. At present, she is an Executive Board member of Women of Europe Award, an active member of International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), a board member of IANSA Women's Network Working Group, and a senior lobbyist at the UN, encouraging member states to sign and ratify the international Arms Trade Treaty during the meetings that take place at the UN General Assembly's First Committee on Disarmament and International Security.