Growing Public examines the question of whether social policies that redistribute income impose constraints on ecomic growth. What kept prospering nations from using taxes for social programs until the end of the nineteenth century? Why did taxes and spending then grow so much, and what are the prospects for social spending in this century? Why did North America become a leader in public education in some ways and t others? Lindert finds answers in the ecomic history and logic of political voice, population ageing, and income growth. Contrary to traditional beliefs, the net national costs of government social programs are virtually zero. This book t only shows that Darwinian mechanism has punished the welfare states, but uses history to explain why this surprising result makes sense. Contrary to the intuition of many ecomists and the ideology of many politicians, social spending has contributed to, rather than inhibited, ecomic growth.