The purpose of this guide is to assist USAID democracy and governance (DG) officers and contractors in designing and implementing rule of law reform initiatives that improve court personnel and court management. This guide defines court personnel as both judges and n-judicial staff who work in the court and enable it to carry out its functions. The guide is practical and realistic. It provides an overview of the operational aspects of court systems, focusing on the judicial and n-judicial personnel whose functions are essential to the effective administration of justice in all types of legal systems. It also describes how court personnel can be organized, managed, developed, and used most effectively to ensure that courts deliver justice competently and foster public confidence. USAID's publication of this guide reflects how the rule of law development community has modified its assumptions and strategies in the pursuit of strategic court system reform. The earlier, almost exclusive focus on strengthening judiciaries through significant investment in the education, training, professional development, and political organization of judges has shifted. Reform efforts w target the broader institutional framework within which judicial activity occurs. They distribute resources more evenly throughout the organizational functions that contribute to achieving more effective courts and higher standards of justice. Greater professional development and strategic use of n-judicial court staff have high potential to in-crease productivity, improve transparency, and enhance public service and external relations.