xii a second edition might be in order, and readily agreed. Although the basic principles remain the same, discussions with analysts, laboratory supervisors, and managers indicated many areas where improve- ments could be made. For example, new chapters have been added on sampling and quality assurance; laboratory facilities and quality assurance; and auditing for quality assurance. Very little of the first edition has been discarded, but many topics have been expanded considerably. The chapter on computers has been completely rewritten in view of the rapid changes in that field. The chapter in the first edition on planning and organizing for quality assurance has been split into two chapters, one on planning for quality assurance and the other on organizing and establishing a quality assurance program, and new material on mandated quality assurance programs has been combined with the material on laboratory accreditation. Numerous examples, especially those involving mathematical calculations, have been added at the suggestion of some readers. In short, this edition is very nearly a new book, and I can only hope it is as well received as the first edition. CHAPTER 1 Quality, Quality Control, and Quality Assurance One of the strongest trends in modem society is the continuing ev- olution from a manufacturing to a service-oriented ecomy.