Hepatocellular Carcima: Methods and Protocols outlines the research methods applied in the laboratories and clinics of those scientists and cli- cians interested in the understanding and clinical management of patients with hepatocellular carcima (HCC). Part I, The Clinical Problem, has been contributed by two leading cli- cal groups who have identified and addressed problem areas related to the management of HCC patients. Various treatment modalities are discussed and emphasis is placed on the limitations they experienced. Part II, HCC Carcigenesis, reviews the main etiological factors related to hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Part III, Molecular and Biological Characteristics, provides insight into the molecular changes associated with HCC, including tumor-suppressor genes, oncogenes, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinase, and vel genes and markers. Part IV, HCC Gene Therapy, addresses gene therapy approaches to treating hepatocellular carcima. It includes the use of various vectors, such as lipids, viruses such as adeviruses and baculoviruses, and virus detection using el- tron microscopy assessment. The use of adevirus with specific promotors, such as AFP, is also included. Preclinical and clinical data on the killing of cancer cells using tumor-suppressor genes, antisense to growth factors, immugene therapy, or virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy are addressed.