Intelligent decision support is based on human kwledge related to a specific part of a real or abstract world. When the kwledge is gained by experience, it is induced from empirical data. The data structure, called an information system, is a record of objects described by a set of attributes. Kwledge is understood here as an ability to classify objects. Objects being in the same class are indiscernible by means of attributes and form elementary building blocks (granules, atoms). In particular, the granularity of kwledge causes that some tions cant be expressed precisely within available kwledge and can be defined only vaguely. In the rough sets theory created by Z. Pawlak each imprecise concept is replaced by a pair of precise concepts called its lower and upper approximation. These approximations are fundamental tools and reasoning about kwledge. The rough sets philosophy turned out to be a very effective, new tool with many successful real-life applications to its credit. It is worthwhile stressing that auxiliary assumptions are needed about data, like probability or membership function values, which is its great advantage. The present book reveals a wide spectrum of applications of the rough set concept, giving the reader the flavor of, and insight into, the methodology of the newly developed disciplines. Although the book emphasizes applications, comparison with other related methods and further developments receive due attention.