The World Bank approaches malaria t only as a major public health issue but also as a broader development problem that costs Africa US$12 billion a year and helps keep families and communities in poverty. In 2005, the World Bank reaffirmed its commitment to malaria control by launching the Booster Program for Malaria Control in Africa, a 10-year initiative that in its first three years committed over US$470 million to malaria control on the continent. Focusing on a two-pronged approach of combining disease control interventions and health systems strengthening, the program has contributed significantly to the global effort to fight the disease. Major reductions in malaria deaths and illness are possible within the next five to seven years. Attacking the disease full-force with a front-loaded effort will have tremendous impact on health and ecomic outcomes. African nations and the global community are gearing up to meet this goal. As one of the top three funders of malaria control, the World Bank is called to play a lead role in this effort. Phase II of the Booster Program for Malaria Control in Africa is the Bank's affirmative and emphatic response to this call.