A machine vision system should be able to analyze images and produce descriptions of what it sees . The descriptions should capture the aspects of the objects being imaged and be useful for accomplishing some specific tasks. In this volume a number of subjects are discussed. They include theoretical aspects which focus on shape analysis, special architectures, 3-D image decomposition, inspection by machine vision, and others. Applications include geophysical image analysis, robotics, sparse image understanding, biomedical applications. An ample survey of the present industrial applications is also provided.