This uncompromisingly empirical study reconstructs the public and private lives of urban business families during the period of England's emergence as a world ecomic power. Using a broad cross-section of archival, rather than literary, sources, it tests the orthodox view that the family as an institution was transformed by capitalism and individualism. The approach is both quantitative and qualitative. A database of 28,000 families has been constructed to tackle questions such as demographic structure, kinship and inheritance, which must be answered statistically. Much of the book, however, focuses on issues such as courtship and relations among spouses, parents and children, which can only be studied through those families that have left intimate records. The overall conclusion is that ne of the abstract models invented to explain the historical development of the family withstand empirical scrutiny and that familial capitalism, t possessive individualism, was the motor of ecomic growth.