The purpose of this book is to communicate some of the recent advances in this field while preparing the reader for more advanced study. The material can be roughly divided into three different types: classical, standard but sometimes with a new twist, and recent. The author first studies basic covering theorems and their applications to analysis in metric measure spaces. This is followed by a discussion on Sobolev spaces emphasizing principles that are valid in larger contexts. The last few sections of the book present a basic theory of quasisymmetric maps between metric spaces. Much of the material is recent and appears for the first time in book format.