It is obvious that movement is an essential concept of all living organisms. Molecular motility participates in many cellular functions including cell division, intracellular transport and movement of the organism itself. Thus, it is t surprising that nature has evolved a series of biological namotors that fulfil many of these tasks. A general class of these biological namotors is called protein namotors that move in a linear fashion (e.g. the kinesin or myosin or dynein motors) or rotate (e.g. F0F1-ATP synthase or bacterial flagellar motors). Protein namotors are natural motors responsible for the human activity and are also the subject of interest for natechlogy. Protein namotors are ideal namotors because of their small size, perfect structure, smart and high efficiency. Recent advances in understanding how protein namotors work has raised the possibility that they might find applications as protein-based narobots. Thus bio-namotors could form the basis of bottom-up approaches for constructing active structuring and maintenance at the mameter scale. In this chapter, we have presented structures, mechanisms and potential applications of linear protein namotors. The three kwn families of protein namotors kinesin, dynein and myosin are multi-protein complexes and share a variety of important features. They are responsible for various dynamical processes for transporting single molecules over small distances to cell movement and growth. Our reviewing from the mechanism, regulation and co-ordination of linear namotors, indicate that the majority of active transport in the cell is driven by linear protein namotors. All of them convert the chemical energy into mechanical work directly rather than via an intermediate energy. Linear protein namotors are self-guiding systems. They have evolved to enable movement on their polymer filaments, either on cellular or supra-cellular levels and are able to recognise the direction of movement. Moreover, each class of namotor has different properties, but in the cell they are kwn to cooperate and even to compete with each others during their function. We have also reviewed the potential application of linear protein namotors. According to this, we predict that linear protein namotors may enable the creation of a new class of natechlogy-based applications; for example, bio-narobots, molecular machines, namechanical devices and drug deliver systems. Thus, protein namotors field is very challenging field and is attracting a diverse group of researchers keen to find more.
A.R. Khataeea, H.R. Khataeeb
Nova Science Publishers Inc
Date of Publication
Engineering & Technology: Textbooks & Study Guides