This book reports the proceedings of an international panel of specialists that explored the agricultural, commercial, ecological, legal, pharmacological and social future of medicinal and aromatic plants at a conference organized by Frontis - Wageningen International Nucleus for Strategic Expertise in Wageningen, The Netherlands. During the three-day conference, members of the panel presented and discussed a variety of facts, thoughts and opinions on research needs and potential importance of medicinal and aromatic plants among developed and developing societies. Hopefully, the information and particulars brought forth during presentations and discussions by panel members and summarized in these proceedings will initiate continued dialogue about the role and prospect of growing, collecting and processing medicinal and aromatic plants with pharmacological and industrial applications. As the reader will te, these proceedings represent a wide collection of views, reflecting the diversity of disciplines and interests of panel members that enabled thoughtful deliberations from a range of perspectives. The panel highlighted the necessity of continued and integrated research on plant sources, conservation, bioactivity, analysis and marketing in examining future scenarios for application and sale of medicinal and aromatic plants. Of special concern was the need for proof of efficacy and safety in drug development and the need to recognize societies contributing plant materials.