Metal ions in the brain are a necessity as well as a poison. The presence of metal ions in the active sites of biological catalysts or metalloproteins and in the biological functioning of nucleic acids is very well documented and they are required for brain activity. On the other hand, metals are very effective in generating oxidative stress. This effect does t only play a role in immulogy but also is the root of practically all neurodegenerative disorders by inducing disease via the death of neurons. Managing metal ions in the brain could therefore be an important strategy in the search for therapeutic agents used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This new title gives an overview to key topics in the area of metal ions in the brain. It focuses on the role of metal ions in neurological systems by describing their advantageous functions as well as their poisous features. It is therefore of interest for scientists in biochemistry and biophysics, physiology, toxicology as well as for physicians focused on this topic.