In 1999 the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) required Federal Lands Management Agencies, including the National Park Service (NPS), to have a comprehensive Traffic Safety Management System (TSMS). The NPS recognizes that improved safety data and analysis capabilities could improve crash record keeping and consideration of safety in NPS transportation investment decisions. With a TSMS NPS could become proactive, rather than reactive, in addressing traffic safety by identifying crash risks at their earliest manifestation. It is conservatively estimated that a TSMS could result in a net benefit of approximately $560,000 annually. If TSMS-identified safety improvements prevented only one fatality, currently valued at $3 million by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), it would be well worth the cost.