Since the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have left centre-stage in the European defence and security debate. Western nuclear doctrines have gradually converged, and large-scale reductions have been made in force sizes. However, long-standing NATO issues persist: the role of British and French nuclear weapons; NATO extended deterrence and the value of the US guarantee; the rationales for the US nuclear presence on the Continent; and the impact of missile defences on deterrence in Europe. The future of nuclear weapons in Europe hinges on two broader issues: that of nuclear weapons in general; and that of European security and integration. How will Europe react to the considerable nuclear changes taking place worldwide? Where does the nuclear element fit into Europe's new strategic and political landscape? This paper argues that nuclear weapons in Europe remain valuable, despite the end of the Cold War. However, there are challenges and dilemmas ahead which must be managed if the European and transatlantic consensus on nuclear deterrence is to be maintained.