Obesity continues to be a major problem for global public health, affecting t only adults, but increasingly also adolescents and even young children. Moreover, obesity and diabetes are longer limited to wealthy societies: rates are also rising in low- and middle-income countries. Summarizing some of the key issues in obesity treatment and prevention, this publication promotes vel and interdisciplinary approaches and explores cutting-edge ideas that span child development, nutrition, behavioral sciences, ecomics, geography and public health. Contributions suggest a sequence of steps that may result in new ways to address obesity at the personal as well as at the population level: first, a clear understanding of who becomes obese, where, and for what reason is needed; second, the likely contributions to overeating by the brain, biology, ecomics and the environment need to be identified. Then, based on the understanding of disease etiology and its distribution by geography and by social strata, targeted yet comprehensive strategies for obesity prevention and treatment for both individuals and groups need to be developed.